A timeline of record releases with 8-bit music. Also contains demoscene events, hardware and software, art, performances, hacks, etc. Focuses on 1977-2005 and is most likely euro-centric (sorry). Suggestions and corrections much appreciated – please get in touch.

Thanks to Otro, C-Men, sh4do3, Yonx, Aphrodite, Amiga Junglism, Mark from Nasenbluten, Patric CataniRambones, Role Model, Venetian Snares, Coma, dj mips, 8GB, Göran Sundqvist, Jonesey, Smurf, Rosa Menkman, Low Res Records, d0us, Nils Dittbrenner, TSRTeam Doyobi, Osdorp Posse8 Bit Weapon, djnickNomex, Anal CuntStagediver, Hedonist, Cybermouse, Irrlicht Project, Johnny Billquist, Mulder, Fifth Era, Unibomber, Davros, Spot, Max Tundra, Paradox, Lazerbeat, tlr, herv, Ant1, nitro2k01, Dr Ops, Jellica, Yuppster, b-hack, Tero, Kaneel, The Destroyer, Hexadeci, Koney, Laurent Ho, Low Entropy, Brendan Ratliff, Traffik, Jan Pravda, Celsius, Frank Zolex, Emmanuel Top

Check out A Timeline of 1-Bit Music for more on the early years and also this timeline.


  • REC: Evgeny Sholpo’s Variophone plays chip-like timbres and compositions. It turned paper waveforms into sounds. youtube + youtube + youtube
  • HARD: The Rhythmicon drum machine by Theremin sounds chippy. youtube


  • LIVE: Frances E. “Betty” Holberton programs the BINAC to play “For He’s A Jolly Good Fellow”. source


  • REC: Two kinds of speech synthesis: Parametric Artificial Talker by Walter Lawrence and OVE by Gunnar Fant. Info + audio
  • LIVE: Push Button Bertha, algorithmic (pop music) composition by Douglas Bolitho and Martin Klein. source


  • LIVE: Illiac Suite by Hiller & Isaacson. Algorithmic composition performed by a string orchestra, recorded in 1967. Similar approaches later made by e.g Xenakis, Koenig, Stockhausen. source + source
  • SOFT: MUSIC I for IBM 704 by Max Mathews. 1ch triangle, only pitch control. source + source
  • LIVE: The Zuse Z22 plays Hänschen Klein and Mitternachtsblues. chipflip
  • LIVE: Christmas carrols performed by the UNIVAC, programmed by John Kamena & colleagues. Perhaps even earliersource
  • LIVE: Janet Norman plays ‘Noel’ live on TV using a Bendix G15. info youtube
  • SOFT: MUSIC II for IBM 704 by Max Mathews. 4ch wavetable. source + source


  • LIVE: SARA (the computer) performs music in Stockholm, Sweden. source: correspondence with Göran Sundqvist
  • LIVE: Peter Samson progams the TX-0 to perform 1-bit Bach music. source
  • LIVE: Rudolf Zaripov makes algorithmic music on the URAL-2 computer. source paper h/t: utz & Nikita Braguinski.
  • REC: Raymond Scott – Cindy Electronium. Although analogue, it’s an early example of chipmusic aesthetics. youtube
  • SOFT: MUSIC III software for IBM 7094. By Max Mathews. source
  • SOFT: Peter Samson’s light pen controlled GUI-software for TX-0. 3 channels. info


  • REC: V/A – Music From Mathematics (10″ @ Bell Telephone Laboratories) IBM 7090 (?). Also a 12″ on Decca in 1962. Listen here and here. info. source sourcesource


  • LIVE: Radio-broadcast featuring LaFarr Stuart and his computer music made with the CYCLONE the year before. source
  • REC: Merry Christmas From Honeywell Electronic Data Processing (7″ @ Honeywell) discogs audio
  • REC: Wim Nijenhuis – Rekengeluiden van PASCAL (7″ @ Philips). audio and info.
  • REC: V/A – Music From Mathematics (LP @ Decca).


  • REC: Bell Telephone Labs – Computer Speech (7″ @ Bell Labs) info
  • LIVE: PDP1-music made by Bill Ackerman, Dan Smith, et al. Additional hardware and software by Peter Samson. samples + source
  • SOFT: Harmony Compiler for PDP-1 by Peter Samson. 4ch squarewave. chipflip. More info here + check vinyl here.


  • LIVE: IBM 1403 line printer performs “Mungu Ibariki Afrika” for Tanzanian exchange students in Västerås, Sweden. By Roy Brandhill. source


  • REC: A Small Computer Plays Some Samples Of Mozart’s Dice-Composition Music (LP @ Barr & Stroud). Early example of minicomputer music. info + audio h/t: irrlicht
  • REC: Studio Di Fonologia Musicale Di Firenze – GE-115 – Computer Concerto (7″ @ General Electric). discogs. h/t: irrlicht project
  • SOFT: ORPHEUS by T.H. O’Beirne. Music software for SOLIDAC. Exact year unknown. more info. h/t: irrlicht


  • REC: V/A – FST 68 (LP @ Phono Suecia). Contains Jan W. Morthenson’s Neutron Star. Sounds by Göran Sundqvist on Datasaab D 21, edited by Morthenson in 1967. discogs + info + info
  • SOFT: Vercoe MUSIC 360 for IBM 360. Modified version of MUSIC IV. source
  • SOFT: Graphic 1 by Max Mathews and L Rossler: draw, copy, erase and edit notes with a lightpen, and store them. source
  • LIVE: Partita For Unattended Computer at Queen Elizabeth Hall. By Peter Zinovieff. Not computer-generated sounds, but the first live-generated computer composition (human interaction was also possible). Used the PDP8 computer. sources: here + ‘what the future sounded like’
  • LIVE: BBC broadcasts the computer Nellie playing music. youtube
  • REC: Jean-Claude Risset – Mutations. source
  • REC: John Cage & Lejaren Hiller – HPSCHD / String Quartet no. 2 (LP @ Nonesuch). Digital compositions, digital sound played with tapes. source + source
  • REC: Heinz von Foerster & James W Beauchamp – Music By Computers (4×7″ flexidisc @ Wiley & Sons)
  • SOFT: MUSIC V for IBM 360. By Max Mathews. Fully written in Fortran. source


  • HARD: Dimi-A – almost fully digital synthesizer by Erkki Kurenniemi. 2 channels. Machine code interface. source
  • HARD/SOFT: GROOVE “hybrid” system for DDP-224 for modular programming and realtime performance. Screen to draw waveforms. Mainly non-digital sounds. source1 2 3 4
  • HARD/SOFT: MUSYS for PDP-8 by Peter Grogono et al. Text-based sequencer for external devices, interactive in real-time. source + Manning, P: Computers and Music Composition. (1980)
  • REC: Göran Sundquist – EDB Mozart, Musikalisches Würfenspeil (7″ @ Sparekassernes Datacentraler). Mozart-covers made on Datasaab D 21 and D 22 (not the EDB). Also found on In Memoriam. discogs
  • REC: V/A – Kvitter som tystnar / Ett musikaliskt tärningsspel av W. A. Mozart (LP @ Industridata AB). Made with Facit EDB 3 & Datasaab D21 by e.g. Göran Sundqvist. photos & recordings
  • REC: V/A – Voice of the Computer: New Musical Horizons (LP @ Decca) source


  • HARD: Dimi-O – digital video music synthesizer by Erkki Kurenniemi. Polyphonic and 1-bit video digitizer. source source
  • HARD: The Muse by Triadex – digital music syntheszier and (deterministic) algorithmic composer. source
  • SOFT: Chowning FM synthesis for PDP-10. source
  • SOFT: ST-programs by Iannis Xenakis,
  • MEDIA: HAKMEM released, documenting various hacks at MIT, including some audio (e.g item 145 and 168).
  • REC: Pietro Grossi – Computer Music (3×12″ @ Two Nuns). Discogs, Youtube. “Three releases in one: a double LP of IBM/360 and IBM/1800 music from 1972, the GE-115 release above, and another GE-115 7″ from 1967 with xmas music
    and more atonal stuff.” / Utz
  • HARD/SOFT: Dimi-600 & Dismal by Erkki Kurenniemi & Jukka Ruohom. 8008-based, assembly-ish language. source source source
  • SOFT: Music 11 by Barry Vercoe for PDP-11. Music progamming language, forerunner to Csound. Real-time audio synthesis and processing, etc. source
  • SOFT: Music routine in 45 bytes (for Altair 8080?), by Paul Mork source
  • LIVE: Steve Dompier makes the Altair 8080 play music using an AM-radio. source It was probably the first time an amateur made it, but was apparently made before.
  • SOFT: Alpha-numeric music with amplitude control introduced for Altair 8080 by Malcolm Wright. source
  • SOFT: Richard Wilson’s Music Compiler for PDP-8 (?). Polyphonic (4 channels?). Uses AM-radio. source
  • SOFT: Sound Synthesis Program (SSP) by Gottfried Koenig. source
  • LIVE: The League of Automatic Music Composers live at Mills College. Networking the KIM 1, generative music. info
  • (SOUND)CHIP: Atari TIA/Stella (Atari VCS, 2600, 7800). 2ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37
  • HARD: The Samson Box. Add-on for the PDP10. source
  • SOFT: UPIC by Iannis Xenakis. Sequencing custom-made waveforms. source


  • REC: V/A – D21 In Memoriam D22 (LP @ Kraftdata AB) download + info Recordings from 1967 and 1970.
  • REC: V/A – First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival. download + info
  • (SOUND)CHIP: P824X (Odyssey2/G7000). source + source
  • SOUNDCHIP: SN76477 (ABC80) 1ch. source + source + source
  • SOUNDCHIP: TMS 5100 (Speak & Spell, speech modules for Apple II and TI-99, arcade games, toys, etc). Further developed into e.g CD2802 and TSP50C50 until 2007. source


  • SOUNDCHIP: Atari Pokey (Atari 400/800, XL/XE, 5200, arcade). 2-4ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37
  • SOUNDCHIP: AY-3891x/YM2149 (Spectrum 128, Intellivision, MSX, Vectrex, Amstrad CPC 464, Atari ST, arcade) 3ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37


  • MEDIA: A series of FM radio broadcasts that contained software. The next year also on the AM-band. source
  • SOFT: Atari Music Composer released. Manual here.
  • SOFT: KIM-1 Interactive Music System. article
  • SOUNDCHIP: SC-01 (Votalker, Total Talk, Handy Voice, Mockingboard, speech gadgets, arcade games, pinball, etc). Followed by SC-02. source
  • SOUNDCHIP: VIC6560 (Vic20) 4 PSG. source
  • SOUNDCHIP: TMS9919 (TI-99/4) 3+1ch PSG. source
  • MEDIA: Telesoftware – programs distributed via teletext – appeared in the UK. source
  • MEDIA: the movie Tron uses sound effects from videogames, and also custom-programmed chip sounds. Keyboard Magazine Nov 1982, p.57
  • SOUNDCHIP: SN 76489 AN (Colecovision, IBM PCjr, Sega Master System & Mega Drive, etc) 4ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37
  • SOUNDCHIP: SP0256 (common for speech synthesis like Currah). Year not confirmed. source: viznut
  • SOUNDCHIP: MOS 6581 SID (C64 family) 3ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37
  • REC: Chris Sievey – Camouflage (7″ @ Random) Contains ZX81-software that can be run as a music video. chipflip
  • SOFT: Muzix81 Composer for ZX81. CV-sequencer, precursor to trackers (duration-based). manual
  • C64: Sampled sound effects appear in the games Space Taxi, Impossible Mission, Ghostbusters…
  • REC: V/A – Free! With Your 64 (7” @ Lyntone) C64, demonstration of the Music Maker. youtubesource
  • (SOUND)CHIP: 2A03 (Famicom/NES) 4/5ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37.
  • (SOUND)CHIP: TED 7360/8360 (C16/116/Plus4) 2ch square/noise. source
  • SOUNDCHIP: uPD1771C (Epoch SCV) 1ch. source + source
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 2151 OPM (MSX, arcade, various japanese computers). 8ch FM. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.43 info
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 2203 OPN (various japanese computers, arcade) 3ch PSG, 3 channel FM. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.43
  • SOFT: Music Animation Machine (Atari 800) by Stephen Malinowski. Graphical representation of a Bach fugue. youtube + info
  • SOFT: Softsynth for Atari 8-bits by Christian Nieber. See e.g Opanowanie Swiata by Jakub Husak youtube source
  • (SOUND)CHIP: Paula 8364 (Amiga) 4ch PCM. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.50
  • SOUNDCHIP: MOS SID 8580 (C128, C64C, etc) 3ch PSG. source
  • C64: E.g Triad and 1001 Crew call their works demos. Previous works made by e.g Flash Cracking Group, Jeff Minter, Anthony Crowther and Ben Daglish.
  • C64: Single-channel delay: Supercan by Lars Hård (02.20), or more obviously Hysteria (#3) by Fred Gray in 1987. discussion
  • C64: Multispeed: Michael Winterberg, Martin Galway (Yie Ar Kung Fu II title, Terra Cresta, Short Circuit). Probably made previously (Starquake). discussion
  • C64: Hard Restart: Rob Hubbard’s Zoids. discussion
  • C64: Digitronix – editor with 3ch SID + 2ch samples.
  • SOFT: Soundmonitor by Chris Hülsbeck. The first tracker ever? (cmp Muzix81)
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 3526 OPL (Arcade, etc) 9ch FM. source + Dittbrenner
  • AMIGA: Soundtracker by Karsten Obarski.  source
  • AMIGA: Aegis Sonix, the first softsynth but not a tracker.
  • ATARI: Demoscene establishes on the ST. source
  • C64: First game music with samples: Arkanoid. (Hülsbeck’s Bad Cat made earlier, but released later) source
  • C64: two-channel sample routine simultaneous w/ SID voices, by The Banana/TEK. csdb
  • SOUNDCHIP: NEC HuC6280 (PC-Engine) 6ch wavetable/PCM, optional: 4ch wavetable/PCM + 1ch FM + 1/2 ch noise. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.50
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 2413 OPLL (arcade, MSX) 9ch FM. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.43
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 2610 OPNB (Neo-Geo, arcade) 3ch PSG, 6ch FM, 2ch PCM. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.43
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 3812 OPL2 (Arcade, AdLib/Soundblaster) 9ch FM. source + Dittbrenner
  • AMIGA: Karsten Obarski’s song Tanktitle – first MOD-file with chip-style arpeggios? song
  • DEMO: Byterapers Copy Party (first demo competition?) source: Polgar:Freax, p.38
  • SOFT: SIDmon (Amiga) by Reiner van Vliet. source: Kotlinski, J: Amiga Music Programs 1986-1995
  • SOUNDCHIP: YM 2612 OPN(2) (Sega Mega Drive) 6ch FM (incl. 1ch PCM) source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.43
  • SOUNDCHIP: SAA 1099 (Sam Coupe, CMS, Soundblaster) 6ch
  • AMIGA: Chip-modules appear (4-mat, Duz, Turtle). 4-mat’s blogposts
  • C64: PWM sample playback. according to rambones
  • MEDIA: Bit För Bit – Show on national Swedish TV with Amiga demo-compo every week. utub
  • (SOUND)CHIP: Ricoh DMG System (Gameboy and followers) 4ch PSG. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.37
  • (SOUND)CHIP: Mikey (Atari Lynx I+II) 4ch square and other waveforms. source
  • SOUNDCHIP: Sony SPC-700 & DSP (SNES) 8ch wavetable/ADPCM. source: Dittbrenner, N: Soundchip-Musik, p.50
  • REC: Frontec Formatic – Electronic Minds (MC @ Ebus Music). 100% Amiga 500 with Soundtracker. source: mail with the artists. info
  • REC: Nebula II – Seance / Atheama (12″ @ Reinforced) Amiga. youtube. source.
  • REC: Urban Shakedown – Some Justice (12″ @ Urban Shakedown, etc) 100% Amiga. Reached top 30 in the UK charts. source-file. info source: Aphrodite
  • SOUNDCHIP: RF5C164 (Sega Mega CD etc) 8ch PCM. source
  • SOUNDCHIP: YMF 262 OPL3 (Soundblaster Pro, etc) 19ch FM. source + Dittbrenner
  • REC: Amiga Trax – 1st Assault (12″ @ Super Special/Industrial Strength) source
  • REC: Aphrodite – Raw Motion / Dub Motion (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: John Boy – Arriba Arriba (12″ @ Melody Music) Amiga OctaMED. #1 in Spanish dance charts for 6 weeks. source
  • REC: Osdorp Posse – Osdorp Stijl (CD @ Djax Records) Amiga/Protracker + MCing. source + e-mails
  • REC: Osdorp Posse – Roffer Dan Ooit (MCD @ Djax Records) Amiga/Protracker. source
  • REC: Psycho Drums – Pattern 1-6 (12” @ Overdrive) Amiga (?). youtube
  • REC: Psycho Drums – Pattern 7-12 (12” @ R&S) Amiga (?). youtube
  • REC: Secret Squirrel – Mu-Venom / DDT (12″ @ Dance Bass Records) Amiga. info. source: Mark N
  • REC: Secret Squirrel – Volume 2 (12″ @ Dance Bass Records) Amiga. info. source: Mark N
  • REC: Stick + Glo – Analogue Alchemy (12″ @ no label) Amiga Protracker. Christian Vogel. source
  • REC: Undercover Elephant – Psycho Sounds EP (12″ @ Dance Bass Records) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Undercover Elephant & DJ Secret Squirrel – Volume 3 (12″ @ Dance Bass Records) Amiga. info. source: Mark N
  • REC: Urban Shakedown – Do it Now! (12″ @ Urban Shakedown) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Urban Shakedown feat. Mickey Finn – Bass Shake (12″ @ Urban Shakedown) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Zookeepers Revenge – Keys to the Cage EP (12″ @ Dance Bass Records) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Aphrodite – Cocaine (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite & Nutty Jim – Full Effect / Feel Real (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – Sea Mortar / Beautiful Bass (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – Break of Day / Break of Dawn (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – The Vine (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – The Vine Remixes (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: The Director – Rougher & Tougher (12″ @ Rave Records). Amiga. info
  • REC: DjNick / Deetronic – Teknoactive (MC @ TIOLI) Protracker. First techno-album of Serbia. source
  • REC: E-De-Cologne – Die Langspielschallplatte (2×12″ @ Mono Tone) Amiga. info. source: sh4d03, catani
  • REC: E-De-Cologne – Live at the Sex Shop (12″ @ Mono Tone) Amiga. Also released on MC in 1996. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Eq8or + Moonraker – Eq8or + Moonraker (12″ @ Mono Tone) Amiga. info source: Mark N, catani
  • REC: Hardsequencer – Amiga EP (12″ @ Fire Recordings) Amiga. info
  • REC: Irish Coffee – Irish Coffee (12″ @ Titanium Steel) Amiga. source: catani
  • REC: Jan Pravda – Pravda Trax (12″ @ Overdrive) Amiga Protracker. source: Pravda info
  • REC: John Boy – Techno Toons / Tie Break (12″ @ Melody Music) Amiga OctaMED. source
  • REC: Neophyte – Protracker E.P. (12″/CD @ Rotterdam Records) Amiga. source
  • REC: Neophyte – The Three Amiga’s E.P. (LP/CD @ Rotterdam Records) Amiga. source
  • REC: Osdorp Posse – Vlijmscherp (CD @ Djax Records) Amiga/Protracker. source
  • REC: Aladdin – Magic Carpet / So Good (12″ @ Aladdin) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aladdin – Warm & Easy / Geni (of the Lamp Remix) (12″ @ Aladdin) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aladdin – Aladdin Remixes (12″ @ Aladdin) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Amazon II / Aphrodite – Basslights / Solaris (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – Beautiful Bass / Navigator (Remixes) (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite & DJ Phantasy & Jack Smooth – DJs Unite Vol.1  (12″ @ Rogue Trooper) Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – Solar Flare / Fascination (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Aphrodite – Sub Groove / Shine (12″ @ Aphrodite Recordings) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: AXL – Untitled (12″ @ Strike Records) Amiga. info. source: Mark N
  • REC: Christoph de Babalon – Love Under Will EP (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Cybermouse – Surprise Attack EP (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga Noisetracker for the diskmag Neurowaver 1992/1993. “Manipulated st-00 to st-03 samples, plus MS-20-samples” / cybermouse (in mail). source
  • REC: Dr. Pravda – Krankenhaus (12″ @ Kick Down) Amiga Protracker. info. source: Unibomber
  • REC: Dr. Pravda – Happy in Raveland (12″ @ Kick Down) Amiga Protracker. info. youtube. source: Unibomber
  • REC: E-De-Cologne – Hello Again! (12″ @ Shockwave) Amiga. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: E-De-Cologne – I Believe in da Power of American Immigrants (12″/CD @ ZYX) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Eradicator – Shortage of Oxygen EP (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. info. source: sh4d03, catani
  • REC: Frank “Zolex” Struyf – Where’s the Dog? (12″ @ Zolex) Monosound made in Octalyzer on Amiga. youtube. source: Zolex
  • REC: Jan Pravda – Haus-Traxx (12″ @ Overdrive) Amiga Protracker. source: Pravda. info
  • REC: Jan Pravda – Pravda Trax II – The X-Perimental Trip (12″ @ Overdrive) Amiga Protracker. source: Pravda. info
  • REC: Jan Pravda – Pravda Trax III – The X-Perimental Drummer (12″ @ Overdrive) Amiga Protracker. source: Pravda. info
  • REC: Methylizer – Secret Project of Patric C (12″ @ Hellrazor) Amiga. source: catani
  • REC: Methylizer – Wodka (12″ @ Hellrazor) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Nasenbluten – 500 / 600 / 1200 EP (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga Protracker. info
  • REC: Nasenbluten – The Nihilist E.P. (12″ @ Mouse Records) 100% Amiga Protracker. info
  • REC: V/A – Newcastle Hardcore Volume One (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: V/A – Newcastle Hardcore Volume 2 (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REMIX: Mouse On Mars – Uah & Die Maus auf Mars (Ec8or remixes) (LP @ Too Pure) info source
  • SOUNDCHIP: SPU aka CXD2922Q (Playstation) 24ch ADPCM. source


  • REC: Aladdin – Mash Up Yer Know / Geni (Lost in Zanzibar) (12″ @ Aladdin) 100% Amiga. info source: Aphrodite
  • REC: Christoph de Babalon – File Already Exists. Continue (Y/N)? (MC @ Cross Fader Enter Tainment) info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Cybermouse – Body Pack 95 (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga 2000 with Noisetracker. 2 songs with additional hardware. source
  • REC: The Director – Pump Up (The Bass) (12″ @ Rave Records). Amiga. info
  • REC: The Destroyer – Break Your Speaker (12″ @ D-Boy). Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.  source: The Destroyer
  • REC: The Destroyer & Concetta – Khorona – Nooo!! (7″ @ D-Boy) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: DJ Moonraker / Eq8or – Bass Terror / Highlights From Midi War (MC @ Midi War) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: DJ Moonraker / Eq8or – Highlight Tape (MC @ Midi War) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: E-De-Cologne – Kalte Kotze – Alte Trax von 91-93 (MC @ Midi War) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Embolism – This Means Fucking War! (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Eradicator – I Cum Blood (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Eq8or – AK-78 (12″/CD @ Digital Hardcore) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Eq8or – Eq8or (2×12″/CD @ Digital Hardcore) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Fifth Era – [FE 01-04] (12″ dubplates @ Fifth Era) Amiga. Some of them released in 1996. source: interview
  • REC: Napalm – Napalm 4 (12″ @ Napalm) Amiga. info. source: catani
  • REC: Napalm – Napalm 6 (12″ @ Napalm) Amiga. info. source: catani
  • REC: Nasenbluten – 100% No Soul Guaranteed (2×12″ @ Industrial Strength) Amiga Protracker. source
  • REC: Osdorp Posse – Afslag Osdorp (CD @ Djax Records) Amiga Octamed, Sound Canvas for bass. source
  • REC: Taciturne – Potpurri (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. youtube. source: Davros
  • REC: Violent Shit (12″ @ Loop (Austria)) Amiga. source: catani – “mixture with Feedbacks of Dj Pure”
  • REC: V/A – The Best of the Amiga Scene (CD) source
  • REC: V/A – The Electric Family – Mariopaint (LP/CD @ Irdial Discs) SNES Mariopaint. source
  • SOUNDCHIP: YMF 278B OPL4 (Arcades, etc) 43ch FM/samples. source
  • LIVE: Maxsoft live in Poland, Amiga 1200. youtube
  • AMIGA/PC: Mono releases 90 songs by e.g. Mortimer Twang, Vim!, Substance, Dreamfish. “Proto-netlabel” source
  • REC: Amiga Shock Force – Untitled (12″ @ Speedcore) Amiga. Re-released 2005. info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Anal Cunt – (12″ @ Hartplastik) Amiga. info
  • REC: The Apprentice & – (12″ @ Cloak). Amiga 600 Protracker. source
  • REC: The Apprentice & – Let’s Give it Another Shot (12″ @ Cloak). Amiga 600 Protracker? source
  • REC: Celsius -The Bad Trip (10″ @ Genetiks). Protracker. discogs. source: Celsius
  • REC: Christ of Noise – Hardcore From A 1200 (12″ @ Radikal Groov). source
  • REC: Cristoph de Babalon – Destroy Berlin! (12″ @ Digital Hardcore Recordings) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: The Destroyer – You’re Like a Toasted Dork!! (12″ @ D-Boy) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: The Destroyer – Mass of Shit EP (12″ @ D-Boy) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: The Destroyer – Hardcore Healing (10″ @ D-Boy) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: The Destroyer – My Brain is Sick (12″ @ D-Boy) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57. Black Jungle is the only Destroyer-song ever that uses non-Amiga sounds (but still sequenced on the Amiga). source: The Destroyer.
  • REC: DJ Freak – E.P. Vol 6 (12″ @ Hard of Hearing) Amiga. info source: smurf
  • REC: DjNick / Deetronic – Rave the Brain (MC @ ITMM) Amiga Protracker. info/listen
  • REC: E-De-Cologne – Synthetic Overdose (CD/LP @ Shockwave) Amiga. info. source: catani
  • REC: Embolism – Massacre EP (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info. source: Mark N
  • REC: Eq8or – Cocaine Ducks (7″ @ Grand Royal / DHR) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Eq8or – Spex is a Fat Bitch (12″/CD @ DHR / Intercord) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Eradicator – Agitprop (2×12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Kippu – Downunder E.P. (12″ @ J-Com) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Hedonist – Hedonist EP (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Memetic vs Netas – Memetic vs Netas (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Osdorp Posse & Nembrionic – Briljant, Hard & Geslepen (CD @ Djax Records) Amiga Octamed + Sound Canvas + Nembrionic. source
  • REC: Rage Reset – Damage EP Part One (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Syndicate – Appetite for Destruction EP (2×12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Taciturne – 6 Fragmente in der Chronolige des Wahnsinns (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Traffik – Crapshoot 10 (12″ @ Crapshoot) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: Traffik
  • REC: Xylocaine – Cluster Bombs (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Xylocaine – The Double One (2×12″ @ Strike Records) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3


  • GAMEBOY: Gameboy sequencer programmed in BASIC by Sebastian Burdach. source
  • REC: Amiga Shock Force – Psycore Kids vs Rave-Fascists (12″ @ Fischkopf) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Amorc – (12″ @ War) Amiga. Possibly 1998? info
  • REC: Anal Cunt – (12″ @ Strike) Amiga. info
  • REC: Body Mass Index (MC) C64/C128 DMC. info+dl. source: bmi
  • REC: Christ of Noise & David Lagon – Amiga Tools Industry vol.1 (12″ @ Provision). hardcore. source + source
  • REC: Christ of Noise & David Lagon – Amiga Tools Industry vol.2 (12″ @ Provision). hardcore. youtube + source + source
  • REC: Christoph de Babalon – If You’re Into It I’m Out of It (CD/LP @ Digital Hardcore Recordings) Amiga. source
  • REC: Christoph de Babalon – Seven Up (12″/CD @ Digital Hardcore) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: The Destroyer – Total Hate (12″ @ D-Boy). Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: The Destroyer – Neighbourhood (12″ @ D-Boy). Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: Dispyz – Schadenfreude E.P. (MC @ Radiograffiti) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: DJ=U=E=P – G=G=M (12″ @ Skrewface) Amiga. info source: smurf
  • REC: Eradicator & Din – Gopherraid (12″ @ Spite) Amiga. source: catani
  • REC: Eq8or – All of Us Can be Rich (2×12″/CD @ Grand Royal) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Eq8or – Discriminate (Against) The Next Fashionsucker You Meet – It’s a Raver (12″ @ Grand Royal) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Eq8or – Until Everything Explodes (CDm @ Digital Hardcore) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Fifth Era – [FE 05], [FE 06], [FE 07]  (12″ @ Fifth Era) Amiga. source + interview
  • REC: Hedonist – Hardcore is Dead, More of the Same (12″ @ UHF). Amiga OctaMED. source: Hedonist. info
  • REC: Koney – The Great Dance Swindle (12″ @ Zero Muzic). Amiga 3000 + Amiga 600 running OctaME, in MIDI-sync. info source: Koney
  • REC: Memetic – Still More Fukt Muzak (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Nasenbluten – Toys / Necros (12″ @ Deadgirl) Amiga Protracker. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Nomex & Scud – Eurostar (7″ @ Maschinenbau) Amiga. info source: Fifth Era
  • REC: Patric Catani – Harmdasher (2×12″ @ Spite) Amiga. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Patric Catani – Snuff Out (12″/CD @ Digital Hardcore) Amiga. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Suicide Squad – 8 Bit Shit (12″ @ Industrial Strength). Amiga 1200, except for Shirtraiser. info. source: Suicide Squad.
  • REC: Syndicate – Syndicate EP (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Test Tube Kid – H (12″ @ Praxis) Amiga. info. source: catani
  • REC: The Horn of Fanyulo – Chatarra Informatica. TI-99/4A, Timex Sinclair 2068, Commodore 128, Radio Shack 128k. info+download.
  • REC: The Horrible Plans of Flex Busterman – The Horrible Plans of Flex Busterman (2×12″ @ Digital Hardcore Recordings) Amiga500+C64. source + catani
  • REC: Traffik – Darkside (12″ @ Born To Kill) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: Traffik
  • REC: Venetian Snares – Fake:Impossible (MC, not on label). Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: himself + Davros
  • REC: Xylocaine – Pressure Sores EP (12″ @ Strike) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Xylocaine – Xylocaine EP (12″ @ Kill Out) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: V/A – Strike Records vs. Bloody Fist (12″ @ Strike) Amiga, atleast B1. info


  • REC: Anal Cunt – (12″ @ Strike) Amiga. info
  • REC: Bodenständig 2000 – Hemzärmelig (MC). source
  • REC: Christian Morgenstern – Sexy World 1-4 (12″ @ Kurbel). Amiga MOD-chiptune (Sexy World 2) source
  • REC: Christoph de Babalon – In a Bad Mood (12″ @ Ghetto Safari) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: D8A – Ruff Beats / Phunk Rhyme Shaker (12 @ Tribe) Amiga. info, source: mulder
  • REC: The Destroyer – Sicilian Antibith (12″ @ Head Fuck) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: DjNick / Deetronic – The Resurrection (CD @ Deetronic) Amiga OctaMED & Protracker. info
  • REC: Dispyz – Untitled E.P. (MC @ Radio Graffiti) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: E 605 – True Force (12″ @ United Speedcore Nation) Amiga. info. wrong year? source: sh4do3
  • REC: Eq8or – World Beaters (CD/LP @ DHR / Beat) Amiga. info. source: sh4do3, catani
  • REC: Fifth Era – Doomhall EP (12″ @ Fifth Era) Amiga. info
  • REC: Fraughman – Fraughman EP (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Koney – Sound Pollution (12″ @ Zero Muzic) Amiga 600 (OctaMED) + sampler. info. source: Koney
  • REC: Mulder – Gettin’ Blunted / The Hardway Remix (12″ @ Tribe) Amiga. info, source: mulder
  • REC: Overcast – N©! (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Overcast – Grief / Fallout (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Scud & Nomex – Total Destruction (7″ @ Maschinenbau) Amiga. info source: Fifth Era
  • REC: Syndicate – Visions of Death (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Taciturne – Ebizeme (2×12″ @ Blut) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Traffik – Untitled (12″ @ Disturbance) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: Traffik
  • REC: Unibomber – Distort 1 (12″ @ Distort) 512k Amiga500 OctaMed. info. Doormouse-side not Amiga. source: Unibomber
  • REC: Venetian Snares – Spells (MC, not on label) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: himself + Davros
  • REC: Venetian Snares – Subvert! (MC, not on label) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: himself + Davros
  • REC: V/A – Spectrum EP (12″ @ Plastic Raygun). Spectrum. Ft2-chip. source
  • SOFT: Gameboy Camera with the music program Trippy-H. source


  • Micromusic.net was founded
  • GAMEBOY: Nanoloop for sale in Germany. Gameboy music software by Oliver Wittchow. source
  • MEDIA: 6581 Show – weekly C64-only radioshow on KDVS in California, USA. 1999-2001. source
  • MEDIA: micromusic.net goes live source
  • MP3: Vim! – 4-Bit Xmas / Wakey Wakey Wales – It’s Christmas! (Monotonik) Buzz tracker. info
  • REC: Amiga Shock Force – Crush-Suicide EP (12″ @ Blut) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Anton Maiden – Anton Gustavsson Tolkar Iron Maiden (CD @ Lunacy). General MIDI and MOD + vocals. source chipflip
  • REC: Bodenständig 2000 – Maxi German Rave Blast Hits 3 (LP/CD @ Rephlex). Atari ST. source
  • REC: COiN – Attract Mode (CDr, no label). Sampled C64 game music. youtube, source: margaret montreux
  • REC: D8A – The Technique / Illegal Life (12″ @ Tribe) Amiga. info, source: mulder
  • REC: Fraughman – 12 Gauge Double Barrelled Sawnoff Shotgun EP (12″ @ Extreme Electronics) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Koney – [white label] (12″ @ Koney) Amiga 600 (OctaMED), sampler, TR-909. info. source: Koney
  • REC: MAT-101 – Goodbye Mum! (CD/LP @ Balance) Early example of the arcade-romantix of micromusic. youtube
  • REC: Memetic – A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Nanoloop – 01 (7″ @ XXC3). Gameboy. source
  • REC: Nasenbluten – Untitled (12″ @ Deadgirl) Amiga Protacker. Wrong year? info source: Mark N
  • REC: Nintendo Teenage Robot – We Punk Einheit! (CD/LP @ Digital Hardcore Recordings). Gameboy Trippy-H. source
  • REC: Role Model – Wiping Out (CD @ Bleepstreet) Amiga MusicLine. source: Role Model
  • REC: Venetian Snares – Greg Hates Car Culture (12″ @ History of the Future) Amiga, OctaMED. source: himself discogs


  • MEDIA: M-P3/Syntax Error. Weekly chipmusic show at national Swedish radio P3. 2000-2003. source
  • MEDIA: Video Computer System by Lobo and Golden Shower wins the MTV Brasil Video Music Awards.
  • MP3: Tero – Pako (Commie) C64. archive.org
  • MP3: Vim! – Chip Van Winkle – Best of Vim! Chiptunes 1992-2000 (Monotonik). Released as MOD. Amiga Protracker. info
  • MP3: Vim! – Fit At the Front (Monotonik) info
  • MP3: Vim! – Timecrunch EP (Monotonik) info
  • REC: COiN – Architects of Character (CD @ Anal Log). Sampled C64-songs. discogs + youtube
  • REC: The Destroyer – Remix Collection (12″ @ Head Fuck) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: Ewmyren – Saker Som Går Sönder (CD @ Bleepstreet) Amiga OctaMED. source: kotlinski
  • REC: Fifth Era – Doom or Dishonour (12″ @ Fifth Era) Amiga. info
  • REC: Fifth Era – Support Your Lokal Doomkommando (12″ @ Fifth Era) Amiga.  info
  • REC: Fraughman – Insect Sex Attak & Machined Death EP (CDr @ Extreme Electronics) Amiga. source: sh4do3
  • REC: Goto80 – Lo-Fi Mono Festival (MC) C64.
  • REC: It & My Computer – Eat My Computer (12″ @ Invasion Planete). Amiga500+DX7+etc. chipflip. source
  • REC: Klangstabil – Sprite Storage Format (12″ @ Ant-Zen) Gameboy+Misc. source
  • REC: Klangstabil – Gioco Bambino (12″ @ Mhz) Gameboy+misc. source
  • REC: Koney – Peoplegrider(12″ @ Koney) Amiga 600 (OctaMED), sampler, TR-909. info. source: Koney
  • REC: Koney – Software Failure (12″ @ Koney) Amiga 600 (OctaMED), sampler, TR-909. info. source: Koney
  • REC: Team Doyobi – Push Chairs For Grown Ups (12″/CD @ Skam). Amiga500. source
  • REC: Tero – First Blood (12″ @ Rikos). C64. source
  • REC: Traffik – Mind Meld (12″ @ Epiteth) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: Traffik
  • REC: V/A – Micro_Superstarz 2000 (CD @ Domizil) source
  • REMIX: Paleface – Back to Square One (Tero C64 remix) (CD @ BMG) source
  • REMIX: Dr.Robotnik – Retro Electro (C64 Retroteroremix) (12″ @ Rikos) source


  • ART: Notendo starts to bend the NES. link
  • ART: Spotmap by Jeremy Wood. Gameboy Camera, GPS, www. link
  • GAMEBOY: Little Sound Dj (LSDj) sold as cartridge.
  • MP3: Vim! – 8-Bitten Break Smitten (Monotonik) info
  • MP3: Virt – FX EP (Monotonik) source
  • MP3: V/A – Smack My .SID Up – the Best of Vibrants (Monotonik) info
  • REC: 386DX – The Best Of (CD @ Staalplaat) source
  • REC: 6955 – 6955 (LP @ 555 Recordings) source
  • REC: 8-Bit Construction Set – 8-Bit Construction Set (12″ @ Beige, C64/Atari) source
  • REC: Bud Melvin – 657,644 (CD) source
  • REC: Goto80 – Papaya EP (7″ @ Bleepstreet) C64. source
  • REC: Kippu – Drama of War (LP @ Hardact) 100% Amiga 1200. Da Jormas. source
  • REC: Llorca – New Comer (CD/LP @ F Communications) Fasttracker 2.08. source
  • REC: Mark 4 – SUM-3(AA,r6)x4 (CD @ Crank Satori/Disco Bruit) Gameboy Nanoloop. Wrong year? source
  • REC: Nasenbluten / Warwick Capper – Dog Control / Fist22 Sampler (3×12″,7″) Amiga. info source: Mark N
  • REC: Psilodumputer – Full Of Sid EP / Microcompo Remixes (12″ @ Domizil). Remixes by Paza, Sami and Drop Da Bomb. source
  • REC: Puss – We Are Puss (CD @ Pusstracks) Gameboy LSDJ. source
  • REC: Syndicate – Badman (12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Team Doyobi – Cryptoburners (CD/LP @ Skam) Amiga 500. source
  • REC: Team Doyobi – Demons To Diamond (7″ @ Skam) Amiga 500.
  • REC: Tero – Bombs Away (7″ @ Rikos) C64. source
  • REC: Traffik – Untitled (12″ @ Epileptik) Amiga, OctaMED. info. source: Traffik
  • REC: Welle: Erdball – Super 8 (CDM @ Synthetic Symphony) C64. Their first release with more than one C64-song, afaik. chipflipinfo
  • REC: V/A – C-SID Musique (LP @ Erkrankung Dursch Musique) Mostly C64. info. source: 8bitweapon
  • SOFT: Carillon Player – Gameboy tracker by Aleksi Eeben source
  • SOFT: Little Sound DJ – Gameboy software by Johan Kotlinski. source
  • SOFT: Live Loops – Gameboy Advance software by Chris McCormick. source


  • ART: Jet Set Willy variations by Jodi. 10 glitchy versions of the Spectrum game, achieved with byte-by-byte BASIC poking. work + info
  • DEMO: Origami Digital – probably the first gallery exhibition with demos info
  • GAMEBOY: The Gameboy Music Club was formed in Austria. source
  • MP3: Aleksi Eeben – Music Box (Monotonik) C64 John Player. source
  • MP3: Aleksi Eeben – The Grand Rules (Monotonik) C64. source
  • MP3: Glomag – Naught (Slapart) source
  • MP3: Glomag – The Axis and the Alloy (Kikapu) source
  • MP3: Goto80 – Monkeywarning (Monotonik) source
  • MP3: Mark VII – Presents Action Replays (No’Mo’) source
  • MP3: Nullsleep – Depeche Mode Megamix (8bitpeoples, Gameboy) source
  • MP3: Nullsleep – The Gameboy Singles 2002 (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: Rugar – My Girl, the Princess (8bitpeoples) NES MCK/MML. source
  • MP3: Vim! – Time For the Squares (Monotonik) Gameboy LSDj. source
  • MP3: Virt – FX 2.0 (Monotonik) source
  • MP3: V/A – Best of AHX Vol.1 – Dexter’s Pinkboratory (Monotonik) Amiga AHX. Pink, Geir Tjelta, etc. info
  • REC: Brotha P Touch (V/A) – C64 SID 6581 Massive (CD Tigerbeat6) source
  • REC: Cow’p – Africa (CD @ 19-t) Gameboy. source
  • REC: Cow’p vs Kema Keur – Cow’p vs Kema Keur (12″ @ ADAADAT) Gameboy. source
  • REC: The Destroyer – The Return (12″ @ Head Fuck) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: The Destroyer – Dumbastard (12″ @ Cunt). Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: Farbror Blå – Jorden Runt Med Farbror Blå (MC @ Johnny Bråttom). Gameboy LSDJ. source
  • REC: Gameboyzz Orchestra – lajv_ad_hom (CDr @ Mik Musik). Gameboy. source
  • REC: Goto80 – Bushrunner (7″ @ Penpal). C64 JCH. source
  • REC: gwEm – Cold War Angst EP (12″ @ Preromanbritain). Atari. source
  • REC: Reconstructing Richard – Fun Rabbit Facts (Kikapu) info
  • REC: Role Model – En Tyst Minut EP (7″ @ Bleepstreet) Amiga MusicLine. source
  • REC: Team Doyobi – DF0:BAD (12″ @ Skam) Amiga500.
  • REC: V/A – Nanoloop 1.0 (CD @ Disco Bruit) Gameboy
  • REMIX: Little Computer People – Little Computer People (Tero C64 Remix) (CD/12″ @ Psi49net) source
  • REMIX: Radio Dept., the – Bad Reputation (Rugar Mix) (CD @ Slottet, NES) source


  • MEDIA: Malcolm McLaren launches “8-bit punk”. source
  • MEDIA: Puss nominated in Swedish grammy Awards (club/dance) source
  • MP3: Geir Tjelta – AHX To Excess (Monotonik) Amiga AHX. source
  • MP3: Overthruster – xGBxHCx (20kbps). Gameboy LSDj. source
  • MP3: V/A – The 8bits of Christmas (8bitpeoples) source
  • REC: 6955 – On the 1’s and 0’s (CD @ 555 Recordings) source
  • REC: Bit Shifter – Life’s a Bit Shifter (CD @ 555 Recordings, Gameboy) source
  • REC: Covox – Final Mission EP (7″ @ Rebel Pet Set, Gameboy) source
  • REC: The Destroyer – Prepare Yourself (12″ @ Head Fuck) Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: Mmfan316 – Dot Matrix With Pop Music (CD @ 555 Recordings, Gameboy) source
  • REC: Mortimer – Ageema Blues (7″ @ Backseat Recordings) Amiga Protracker. info
  • REC: Orlingo – One Time Too Much (7″ @ Backseat Recordings) Amiga Protracker?. info
  • REC: Puss – Master & Slave (7″ @ Pusstracks) Gameboy: LSDJ. source
  • REC: Tero – Cracker’s Revenge (LP @ Rikos) C64. source
  • REC: V/A – Boy Playground (CD @ Relax Beat, Gameboy) source
  • REC: V/A – Heavy Rotation (CD @ Polygame Records) source
  • REC: V/A – Hot Gameboy Music (CD @ Plag Dich Nicht) source
  • REC: V/A – Join the Party (pic-12″ @ Müller Music) with Gwem, Tobiah, Puss, Der Tante Renate. source
  • REC: V/A – VGM Mixtape #8 (CD @ No Sides) source
  • REMIX: Koro Osanogo – Mini Klik (Role Model remix) (12″ Relax Beat) First LSDJ-song on vinyl? source
  • REMIX: Tim Koch – Obatem By Night (Goto80+Extraboy Remix) (CD @ Aural Industries) C64+misc source


  • HARD: Midines (NES midi-slave) released?
  • MP3: Aleksi Eeben – The White Box (Monotonik) C64. source
  • MP3: Blasterhead – Killbots EP (Monotonik) Gameboy. source
  • MP3: DMG Plantlife – The Dumbass Techno Techno EP (20kbps) source
  • MP3: AY Riders – ZX Spectrum is Alive (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: Overthruster does about 20 releases, much of it soundchip-based e.g 4 bit Sludge n Bass, Meth Date Dance, Vociferous Reiteration, Plays the Gameboy, Namelessly Evil. Download, info.
  • MP3: Paza Rahm – Ninjani Diskus (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: V/A – 1984: Chipolitiks vol 1 (Toilville) source
  • REC: Amiga Terror Corps – Active Meditation (CDr @ Ravedome) Amiga, Digibooster Pro 2.21. info, source: CJ Warlock
  • REC: Bodenständig 2000 – Hart Rockende Wissenschaftler (12″ @ Feed the Machine) Atari ST. source
  • REC: Firestarter – Wuppertal EP (MCD @ Retinascan) Gameboy. source
  • REC: Firestarter/Plemo – Randale/Die Hintergründe (7″ @ Audiolith) source
  • REC: gwEm/Kingkas – Den of Rock EP (7″ @ Preromanbritain) Atari ST. source
  • REC: Lo-Bat – Game Boy (MCD @ Retinascan/8bitpeoples) Gameboy LSDJ. source
  • REC: Overcast – 3:P.M Eternal (2×12″ @ Bloody Fist) Amiga. info
  • REC: Pharmacom – Bloxx (MCD @ Retinascan). source
  • REC: Phriz-B – Pulsing Quiche Gas (CDr @ Go Away Recordings). Amiga: 8 channel OctaMED. source: herv
  • REC: Sputnik Booster & The Future Posers – Better Living Through 8-Bit Technology (MCD @ Retinascan) source
  • REC: Starpause / K9d – The High Quality Texture of Pure Shit (Floppy @ Floppy Swop) info
  • REC: Superdöner – Achtung Ertballe (12″ @ Beermania) C64/Gameboy/PC. info
  • REC: Teamtendo – Miss EP (12″ @ Deco) source
  • REC: Teamtendo – We EP (12″ @ Institubes) source
  • REC: Tree Wave – Cabana EP (CD @ Made Up Records, C64, Atari2600, 286, epson-printer) source
  • REC: TSR – Transexual Swiss Rebels (12″ @ Hörspielmusik) Made with various trackers. source: TSR. info
  • REMIX: Siemers – Inter Pares (remixes by Naughtyboy, Pharmacom, Lo-Bat, Sabastian Boaz, Hyperkut, Firestarter, etc) (Retinascan 2004) source
  • REMIX: Sophie Rimheden – Strange (Puss Remix) (CD @ Mitek) source


  • ART: J. Schrier’s Gameboy Exhibition at Burning Man source
  • C64: Dekadence – PICO! New waveforms invented by resetting/restarting the noise waveform periodically. dl
  • MP3: Divag – Gameboy Tunes (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: DMG Plantlife – Drastic Measures (20kbps) source
  • MP3: DMG Plantlife – The Great Mystery of 8-bit Flora (mp3death) source
  • MP3: Goto80 – Bravo (Candymind) source
  • MP3: Goto80 – Contech (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: Random – Happy Ending After All (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: Rushjet1 – Sounds of the 2A03 (8bitpeoples) source
  • MP3: x|k – Nestek (8bitpeoples) source
  • REC: 8 Bit Weapon – The EP (CD @ Intellivision Music) source
  • REC: 8 Bit Weapon – Vaporware Soundtracks (CD) source
  • REC: Covox – Delete the Elite (CD @ Socom/Shanshui) Gameboy LSDJ. source
  • REC: The Destroyer – EpileptikAct11 – The Destroyer Album (CD @ Epileptik). Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: DJ Scotch Egg – KFC Core (CD/10″ @ ADAADAT) source
  • REC: Goto80 – Commodore Grooves (CD @ Rebel Pet Set) C64, Amiga, Gameboy. source
  • REC: Mini Melodies – If I Never Come Home Again (CD @ NRKO) C64, vocals. source
  • REC: Paza – Janin Tendo Data Risotto (CD @ Ninjani Diskus) source
  • REC: Pharmacom – I Am GBsequenced (business card-CD @ Here is my Card Records) Gameboy. source
  • REC: Receptors / Mommy Was an Asteroid – Controller Array EP (7″ @ ReceptorsMusic) source
  • REC: Role Model – A New Fragrance (CD @ Retinascan/8bitpeoples) source
  • REC: V/A – Schubfladen #1 (7″ @ Musikfladen/Pingipung) source
  • REC: V/A – Newcastle vs Newcastle (12″ @ Strike) Amiga. info. source: smurf
  • REMIX: Bodies Without Organs – Open Door (Covox Correction) (CD @ Capitol Records) source
  • REMIX: Beck – Hell Yes (Remix EP) – remixes by Paza and 8-Bit (Interscope Records) source
  • REMIX: Beck – Girl (Remixed by Paza) source



  • HARD: 1-bit Groove Box by Noah Vawter
  • REC: 8 Bit Weapon – Vaporware Soundtracks 2.0 (CD) source
  • REC: Bodenständig 2000 – Hart Rockende Wissenschaftler (12″ @ Feed the Machine) source
  • REC: Bubblyfish – Peripheral v.1.2.2 (CD @ Retinascan) source
  • REC: David E. Sugar vs Ears – David E. Sugar vs Ears EP (12″ @ Brikabrik) source
  • REC: David E. Sugar – Coin-Op Rocker EP (12″ @ C Side Trax) source
  • REC: Firebrand Boy – Orange (7″ @ Pale Fox) source
  • REC: V/A – 8BP050 (2CD @ 8bitpeoples) source
  • REC: V/A – GB (CD @ Intikrec) source
  • REC: Yoav Gal & Yael Kanarek – Bit by Bit, Cell by Cell – Music For Soprano & Atari 800XL (CD @ Innova) info chipflip


  • MP3: Cuomo, Jim & Divag – Significant Bits 2007 (Pigeon Music) source
  • REC: Alex Mauer – Vegavox (NES-cartridge) First cartridge release?
  • REC: Bodenständig 2000 – Uber Album (LP @ Storage) source
  • REC: The Destroyer – This is Hardcore (2xCD @ Thorntree) Split with Bryan Fury. Amiga, Oktalyzer 1.57.
  • REC: DJ Scotch Egg – Encyclopedia of Hardcore Chiptune (CD @ De-Fragment) source
  • REC: DJ Scotch Egg – Scotch Hausen (CD/12″ @ ADAADAT/Wrong Music/Very Friendly) Gameboy. source
  • REC: Goto80 – Made On Internet (CD @ Pingipung) C64, PC. source
  • REC: Mommy Was an Asteroid – Jumpin Jack Flashcart (CD @ Retinascan) LSDJ, Nanoloop 1.3. source
  • REC: Naks – Sellout EP (12″ @ TSR) 90’s Amiga techno/electro. source
  • REC: Sulumi/USK – As Vivid as Your Lips (CD @ Bedzoo) source
  • REC: Superdöner – In the Jungle (7″ @ Ken Rock) Amiga/PC.
  • REC: V/A – 8-Bit Operators (CD @ Astralwerks) source
  • REC: V/A – Getsumen Toheiki Mina: Chiptune Collection (CD @ Mina) source
  • REC: V/A – The Low Times of Hi-Fi (10×3.5-floppy @ Pharmacom Records). source
  • C64: Mixer, SounDemon, THCM – Vicious Sid. 4 channel 8-bit sample replayer. Also plays audio with the graphics chip Vic. info+dl
  • REC: Davros vs Unibomber – The Final Amiga 500 Battle (2×12″ @ Noizetek) Amiga500+Octamed 1.8. source
  • REC: Unicorn Dream Attack – Love Bits (CD @ Little Bit Records) source
  • REC: USK – Dot Matrix Melodiator (CD @ Shanshui) source
  • ART: Samson Young – Gameboy Haiku. link
  • REC: Dispyz – Raverblood EP (7″ @ Radio Graffiti) Amiga OctaMED. source
  • REC: Jonas R Kirkegaard – Quiet Works For Cello & Commodore 64 (memory stick, no label). source
  • REC: Stagediver – I (7″ @ Radio Graffiti) Amiga OctaMED. source


  • REC: The Mist Toggles – Boneless (Gameboy cartridge @ 8!t). First GB-cart release? info


  • REC: Education of the Noobz – Live in Stoccarda (7″ @ Stora). Vic-20, etc. First time for Vic-20 on vinyl? info
  • REC: Mobb Beep – Modificeret (LP @ Altid). Gameboy. source


  • REC: Tero – Suodatinjauhatus EP (12″ @ Sewer Leak). C64. listen


  • REC: Hailon, Junglistic – Rollerz vol.1 (12″ @ Jungle Rollerz). Amiga jungle. link


  • REC: Doctor Popular – Destroy All Presets (CD/MP3/cartridge). First Gameboy Advance cartridge release? link
  • REC: Max Tundra – Selected Amiga/BBC Micro Works 85-92 (MP3, no label). bandcamp
  • REC: V/A – 20 Years of Da Jormas (12″ @ Sewer Leak). Compilation of Amiga Protracker modules. link, listen


  • REC: Celsius – Fire on Wax (12″ @ Sozialistischer Plattenbau). Protracker-mods from 1995. discogs. source: Celsius


  • REC: Celsius – Fire on Wax II (12″ @ Sozialistischer Plattenbau). Protracker-mods from 1995. discogs. source: Celsius
  • REC: Pete Cannon – The N4 EP (12″ @ Kniteforce). Amiga OctaMED + AKAI-sampler. discogs. source: Amiga Junglism
  • REC: Pete Cannon – N4 Part 2 EP (12″ @ Kniteforce). Amiga OctaMED + AKAI-sampler. discogs source: Amiga Junglism

About the list

This timeline lists important/pioneering objects, works, and events relevant to the chip- and demoscene primarily up to 2005. At first I tried to limit the list according to scientific rules, but gradually it got more subjective.

What’s in the list? Mainly non-DIY releases with music composed using a computer/console where the sounds are generated by the internal sound chip, or has a very small filesize, or is made with 8-bit tracker software, or emulations of it, or music that is otherwise similar or relevant. Important technical achievements, performing music with computer peripherals, live performances, media coverage, releases of soundchips and other hardware, awards, demoscene history, and a small selection of software.

What’s not in the list?  Usually I have excluded videogames, ‘other’ uses of soundchips in e.g synthesizers, arcade games, expansion modules, etc. Also many early digital/analogue experiments, ultra-limited releases, songs where the chipsounds are only for the background, etc. Remixes are included especially if a chipmusician remixed a mainstream artist.

Also check A Timeline of 1-Bit Music and there is also 120 years of electronic music and a good thesis on The Evolution of Digital Music Production.


  • Pyratronik (youtube) – oldschool scener who released vinyl, this sounds Amiga. AMP-page.
  • Maarten VisserHakkuh! (emailed)
  • Bizzy B (tweeted)
  • The Impostors: “Adversity and Radar Mapper were made entirely on the Amiga 500+ with OctaMED — although they were mixed down and mastered in a DAW. We have other Amiga-only tracks uploaded to our SoundCloud and YouTube sites, although not yet released, and these can be identified by the blue, yellow and black record label images. Tracks with white labels were made on the Akai S3000, but still controlled via midi with OctaMED on the Amiga. All tracks were made around 1994/1995.”
  • “All Max Death,  Colonel  Stench,  Pariah,  Syndicate, Memetic, Embolism tracks. I see you have some of those artists already. But ALL their music was on Amiga only.” / Suicide Squad
  • DJ UEP
  • DJ Traffik (e-mailed)
  • Somatic Responses
  • Noname & Mouse (e-mailed)
  • Coldcut’s early days (Global Chaos (esp. Amiga version), the Top Banana 12″, etc)
  • Dj Krome & Mr Time. The Slammer clearly seems Amiga. (source: Hexadeci)
  • DJ Red Alert & Mike Slammer. Don’t Need Your Love sounds Amiga. (source: Hexadeci)
  • P-model 2D or not 2D wikipedia amiga (maybe their MOD-files were made by these)
  • UHF records (hedonist: “some of the stuff was amiga”), Junge on Amiga >>, Epsilon & Fasttracker 2 >>,
  • Freak Out Disco: released two albums w/ italo covers + finnish vocals. One w/ Kasko (Vesuri / Da Jormas) with a good video, and a compilation.
  • Amiga Terror Corps (2004, features this C64-scener)
  • Bauri, Halcyon411 (Deadmau5), Inpuj (Machinedrum, Meek, Proswell, etc), Brothomstates, Lackluster, Soundmurderer + Otto von Schirach?
  • AMIGA: Christian Vogel (OctaMED, 6 first albums), Calvin Harris (I created Disco), “Possibably Diss-cuss or Zero B, as they achieved that lovely chunky sound like I did?” (Jonesey), patrick lindsey?, muffler, Unibomber: “Anal Cunt, Laurent Ho (Ingler) //  ‘French Harshcore’ w/ ppl like Anti and Sexochii etc”, Black Dog Productions, hardsequencer, nuts, 8bit,  amiga shock force, vdd.E and valium, John Dark e.g. this, Rage Reset and Junkalator,  christoph de babalon, nation 12, bomb the bass (..), christian morgenstern (stuff, bio, video for ‘lydia on the edge of panic’, member of covert action on amiga: hawaii blue, sexy world, night of the living death), fifth era: “D S L (“Deck Smasher Lee) made some tracks using two amiga 1200’s paired togther.this was his label originally: http://www.myspace.com/ufolondon, …”
  • LABELS: TRSI Recordz, Micromusic, Relax Beat, GDTK, 8bitpeoples, retinascan, Kamishimo Records,
  • C64: laconic zero, next life, Commodore 64 Orchestra (old releases = trolling?)
  • GAMEBOY: mark denardo, Gameboyzz Orchestra Project, Bud Melvin: Business Card CD Single mini-CDR (Sick Sick Sick), Nanzabukun: Game Boy Inspirat CD, Cow’p / Kema Keur: Cow’p Vs. Kema Keur 12″ (Adaadat), Gameboymusicclub Vol. 2 CD, Hot Gameboy Music CD (Plag Dich Nicht), DJ Scotch Egg – Drumized, DJ Scotch Egg – Scotch Chicken/ Scotch Party, Quarta330, logic bomb: house of zombie ninja @ retinascan (chip?),
  • ATARI: gwEm And The Gwemettes: Frank Sinatra / FYMW 7″ (Shitkatapult)
  • MISC: Alex Mauer: 9999 CD (II), Tristan Perich: 1-Bit Music audio circuit in CD jewel case (Cantaloupe), The League of Automatic Music Composers, YMCK, /////
  • bitshifter’s: ali my love, animal style, arcadecoma, bacalao, blasterhead, Bokusatsu Shoujo Koubou, burnkit2600, chromix, Jonny Classic & The Classic Johns, disasterpeace, dis*ka, Fan Club Orchestra Japan, hey kid nice robot, Kplecraft, Restart, SCSNiPPETS, Seed A.I., Starscream, Sulumi, TB, Timeheater, Matt Wand, M1dy / Bokusatsu Shoujo Koubou: Jappanoize Vol 1 12″ (Dualkore), Getsumen Usagi Heiki Miina Kyarakutaa Korekushon, Kill Club #001 CD (Shanshui) //////// OVERTHRUSTER, Utabi – Machurian Candy / Chipped plastic,GTO/Tricky Disco I THINK were using amigas for some of their work,,2007: REC: 8-bit – We Sold Our Souls (CD @ Ninjastar Records), 2004: REC: 8-bit – You Ain’t No Robot Bitch (CD @ Ninjastar Records) source, 2002: REC: 8-bit – 8-bit (CD @ Ninjastar Records) source, the gas man (idm-ish), zombie flesheater (breakcore): Pippilina, mikron 64, Blasterhead, a boy and his sid, räuberhöhle, Paza, sputnik booster, dropdabomb: 3chnls4bit @ retinascan (list as stu…?), sulumi: what releases are chip?, david sugar – chipmusic releases?, http://resetgeneration-site.arena.n-gage.com/downloads/soundtrack.jsp – may2008
  • MEDIA: otaku sweden go go!
  • PRECURSORS: JIM CUOMO! + Spoils of War (“Spoils of War was primarily a saw-tooth kind of band”), Gottfried Michael Koenig: Which were computer performed? Terminus 1, 2, X and Funktion [color]?,
  • HARD/SOFT: MUSICBOX by Knut Wiggen… Fortran … 1972?
  • HARD: Atari Video Music
  • SOFT: Dpysnd, sound editor for PDP-10 (197x) by Bill Schottstaedt.
  • HARD: 1977: Systems Concepts Digital Synthesizer (SCDS), built by Peter Samson for CCRMA, signal generating and processing elements all executing in parallel, and capable of running in real time. There are 256 digital oscillators, 128 signal modifiers (filters, reverb, amplitude scalers), a scratch-pad memory for communicating values between processing elements, and a large memory for reverberation and table storage. source
  • Boy 8-bit started with OctaMED on Amiga


  • Venetian Snares: “First three cassettes and greg hates car culture and some of fuck canada and some of printf.”
  • Emmanuel Top: “I started with ZX81 and then C64, followed by Atari 520ST, 1040ST and many others after that.”
  • Celsius: “Most of my early releases were made on FT2 on PC starting from 1997. Technically 16-bit of course however relying mostly on 8bit samples that I had from my mod days. The physical 8-bit releases are The Bad Trip (1996) and Fire on Wax I and II (2017 and 2018, with unreleased jungle-mods from 1995).”
  • Bogdan Raczynski: “You’re correct that nearly all of my Rephlex stuff (and a number of other remixes – Warp, etc) were made either in S3M/IT. I played with XM a lot but never released anything on it “professionally” (such a wanky word, but just to say it never came out on wax/CD). I was quite chuffed that even my Bjork collaboration was 100% IT! That took a bit of effort with the vocals. :)”
  • Muffler: “None of the actual drum n bass releases i made after 1999 had Amiga’s own sound, I used Amiga on couple of tracks but only for midi.”
  • Max Tundra: “The only Max Tundra track which uses the internal Amiga sounds is the song “Fuerte” from my album “Mastered By Guy At The Exchange”. All my sequencing is done on an Amiga, but usually this controls hardware synths, samplers and modules, via a MIDI interface. I use an Amiga 500.” (e-mail 2010)
  • Welle: Erdball – just occasional C64-songs, atleast in all the releases here.
  • DJ Zinc: OctaMED + AKAI sampler (.)
  • Ural 13 Diktators: “Most of our tracks released on records during 1998-2001 were made using OctaMED tracker software (using MIDI) and many of these songs contain also arpeggio/chiptune sounds directly from our Amiga A600: Red Stars & Helsinki Calling, Warlords of Destruction, Hits Not Hype (Amiga Rock City Mix) and Blind Love.”
  • Omni Trio: I Started out using primitive trackers such as Pro-Tracker and Octamed. Infact ‘Mystic Stepper’ and ‘Renegade Snares’ and most of ‘Deepest Cut’ was done with Octamed. source
  • Laurent Ho: My 666 005 ingler “antenne medical” should not be listed. It was made with a 12bit sampler P2002-p2000 and a arp odyssey, not amiga trax.
  • Suicide Squad had more Amiga-made songs: R.A.W. and their remix of Wrench’s Kokyu Suru Yume, as well as Fuckcore Pt2 (Ultimate Terror Mix) and Severe Beating released as Assassins of Terror.
  • Traffik released single Amiga tracks on other releases than listed above: Point Break, Bloodbath, Eco Trauma, Surrender, Magnox.
  • Jan Pravda released single Amiga Protracker tracks on other releases than listed above: Amiga Reggae, X-Beat, Member of Mayday – We Are Different (Prvda rmx), Manual Hypno, Stompd Galaxy, Round 1, Aeolian Harp,

69 Responses to “TIMELINE”

  1. dubmood Says:


  2. dr ops Says:

    may i alsao mention from 2007′;
    Mommy Was an Asteroid’s “Jumpin Jack Flashcart” on Retinascan.

    all gameboy(lsdj, nanoloop 1.3) instrumentals.


    cheers ;)

  3. dr ops Says:

    oops..i think you mentioned it above.

  4. dr ops Says:

    i need to find the titles but Frank Zappa has some purist computer based music from the ’80’s worth mentioning, also The Residents seemed to concentrate on digital and computer music as early as the late ’70’s.

  5. dr ops Says:

    and of course Kraftwerk’s Computer World album and thereon..

  6. chipflip Says:

    thanks for the feedback. afaik kraftwerk mostly used analogue sounds, also on computer world, no? but if you can find those zappa and residents stuff it would be great to hear it!

    i’m trying to get a grip purist digital music in 60s, 70s, and 80s – it’s a bit of work, hehe. it seems digitally generated sounds were not that interesting to composers after novelty value in the 60s and early 70s, to return during the 80s with FM-synthesis and samplers. i need a book on this. i have yet to find a good one which is as narrow in its scope as i am. :)

  7. Newsflash! Chipmusic Gets Older! « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] I have updated the TIMELINE. I’m still nowhere near of pretending to be able to say that it’s possible to talk […]

  8. dr ops Says:

    i guess Kraftwerk’s ‘Computer World’ album was mostly analog sounds, except of course for the Texas Inst chip from the Speak n Spell but more for novelty . and the VL from the casio, but i guess that’s fm really. i do believe computer editing was used though. the sounds on the Resident’s “Commercial” album sound like maybe on the VIC20 , but before the term chipmusic was used?

  9. Happy New 1992 « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] New 1992 By chipflip Today I updated the timeline with records from the early 1990s, specifically with the Dutch hip hoppers Osdorp Posse. In 1992 […]

  10. Maskinoperatör Says:

    Uhm.. alot of Welle:erdball songs are tracked on C64. for example monoton und minimal, which is also in HVSC.
    maybe not old enough to qualify?

    And didnt Alec Empire play live with Nanoloop very early in Atari teenage riot?

  11. chipflip Says:

    ah yes, welle:erdball! forgot about them, thanks! do you happen to know which releases include “enough” c64 to be included here? :)

    the alec empire stuff is listed as nintendo teenage robot!

  12. Linus Says:

    May I add Mini Melodies – “If I never came home again”, released on NRKO records?

  13. chipflip Says:


  14. yonxUP Says:

    i see you are missing some chips, here is a nice list i found when searching for the TI TMS9919 the other day…


  15. Two Obscure Soundchips « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] By chipflip After Yonx’s suggestion, I decided to complete the list of soundchips in the timeline. Since the purpose of the timeline is to make a selection rather than a complete listing, I once […]

  16. Amigacore « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] Christoph de Babalon are other amigacore artists, but I am not sure which releases would fit in the timeline (ie, mainly use internal Amiga sounds). Does anyone […]

  17. 8-bit Music is Not Chipmusic: Amiga Doomcore « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] means that my timeline of chipmusic has increased its gap of releases in the 1990s – most of it being […]

  18. b-hack Says:


    Bell Labs let their computer speak and sing (with computer music accompainment)

  19. b-hack Says:

    hmmm i don’t understand? this should be filed under 1962!
    i also read on ubu that it’s actually included with “Music From Mathematics”, but discogs tells me that’s not true. also it’s on the “First Philadelphia Computer Music Festival” compilation (1979), but only in an abridged version.

  20. Was there a Chipscene in the 1990s? « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] of examples of 8-bit music released on records in the 1990s, and I still haven’t updated the timeline with the info that Patric Catani was kind enough to send me. But anyway, most of it is Amiga-music […]

  21. jikoo Says:

    I like very much this article. A great knowledge ! Nice ! Bravo !

  22. The roots of real-time generated digital music… « Bits, Nibbles & Bytes Says:

    […] roots of real-time generated digital music… A number of links sourced from CHIPFLIP’s TIMELINE that I think are relevant to what I am […]

  23. Anachronism or Typical Dreams? PLATO and Progress « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] PLATO enabled people to work with music in ways that has become attractive once again. Just imagine the feeling of showing slides on your TV/monitor. You could access recorded sounds on a magnetic audio disk, which I can imagine holds a lot of potential for physical manipulation of the sounds or songs. I’m not sure how the software worked, but it seems that you could work both on GUI-level and code-level with many programs. And of course, touch screens have become cool again and we perhaps forget that there were touchscreen GUIs to make music in the 1960s if not the 1950s (Samson and Mathews, see timeline). […]

  24. SeXoChII Says:

    hi there
    i wonder where did you hear about me and A.N.T.I. ?
    Great review

    • chipflip Says:

      Hi Sexochii. Unibomber (an american musician) mentioned you and A.N.T.I might’ve been using the Amiga. Did you? If so, for which releases?

  25. the Polygirl Says:

    hello Chipflip,
    perhaps nobody need it but here is my Industrial / Atonal Soundscape made with my Amiga 2000 and the Noisetracker.
    i send it to you because you have not talk of this genre of Amiga modules here at Chipflip.

    have fun with… : P
    The Polygirl

  26. Hello Welle: Erdball « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] through (a torrent of) their discography to see if any of their releases should be placed in the timeline. As far as I could find, none of their releases included more than the occasional C64-song. I chose […]

  27. Thematics – Tracker Special « BreakCoreWorld Says:

    […] To find out more about 8 bit music and trackers you could go to: http://woolyss.com https://chipflip.wordpress.com/timeline/ […]

  28. Thematics Radio – Tracker Special Says:

    […] To find out more about 8 bit music and trackers you could go to: http://woolyss.com https://chipflip.wordpress.com/timeline/ […]

  29. The Most Popular Tracker Ever? « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] popular tracker ever? Also, is it the most popular 8-bit tracker in terms of vinyl releases? In the timeline there are 100+ vinyls made on Amiga, most likely in Protracker or MED. Protracker was very popular […]

  30. The First Recording of Chipmusic, or What? « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] according to my timeline the first release with recorded chipmusic continues to be this strange flexidisc from 1984, […]

  31. gringa Says:

    What about “circuit bending” created in 1967 by his (supposed) father Q. Reed Ghazala ? What’s difference?
    (Sorry for my poor english)

    • chipflip Says:

      Reed Ghazala worked with analogue tools and soldering and stuff. While there are examples of circuit bending that fits in this timeline (modifying 8-bit hardware, etc), it doesn’t mean that the history of circuit bending needs to be here. The way I think now. :) But yes, there could be some examples of low-tech digital circuit bending here. I suppose that happened already with the first digital consumer technologies in the 70s (ie Leauge of Automatic Music Composers, I think).

  32. nixnutz Says:

    I guess I understand why you haven’t included videogame music; it would create a problem of scope–there’s just too much of it–and the focus of the chip scene is more about “artists” “appropriating” technology (scare quotes semi-ironic there) but I find it problematic.

    Maybe it’s because most of the interest in this stuff is from a generation that didn’t grow up in arcades but I feel like there’s an alternate history being created that ignores the contributions of the majority of the pioneers and practitioners in the field.

    It’s great that Koji Kondo and some of the C64 composers are remembered but the programmer who did the sound design for the Williams arcade machines is equally important IMO. I’d like to see some of the important milestones at least; first melody in a videogame, first background music, maybe also for consoles.

    • chipflip Says:

      The game composers never really got the attention they deserved. Game audio was and is not valued as much as the visual. I can recommend books by Karen Collins on this. She gives some attention to both past and present game composers.

      Although they were/are very close both to a chipmusic scene and the demoscene, I’ve decided to leave it out. There are some exceptions, similar to what you suggest actually, only it’s for platforms rather than videogames. Which C64-composers did the first sample routine, multispeed, hardrestart, etc. I included this because it’s interesting to see that soundchips were already “appropriated” (hehe) in the 1980s. But to see which game had what first, is a massive work that I’m not sure is relevant here in the end.

  33. GOTO8O » Blog Archive » About interviewing Says:

    […] yeah, recently I was interviewed by a journalist who had obviously studied my Chipflip-timeline pretty well. That was a nice change. And one of the purposes of that list was indeed to educate […]

  34. the Polygirl Says:

    hello Anders, hello everybody !

    i made a new track with my AMIGA (2000) and NOISETRACKER.
    so its for the amigacore and 8 bit soundlovers !

    have fun with. : D

    AMIGA is still alive !
    The Polygirl

  35. the Polygirl Says:

    sorry, i couldnt integrate the url video… : (
    so you have to take this link :

    8 bit rulez !

  36. Jim Says:


    what do you make of this?

    coin op remixes circa 1994

    • chipflip Says:

      haha, this release really is quite psycho (found a download-link).
      to not bloat this timeline, there’s not much of these things here.
      but i’ve added it to the page about plagiarism instead (hrmf, really need to rename that page).

      also added aphex’s pacman track.
      …wonder where this’ll end? :)


  37. Jim Says:

    Sampled directly from the arcade cab, apparently this was popular in the chicago ghettos, very underground.

    Paul Johnson wasnt paid for mixing any of these tracks, probably because of the uncleared sampling.

  38. Amiga in the UK-charts: Dex & Jonesey « CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] In the 1990′s you could use chipmusic tools to make dance music hits. It was r rare to hear 8-bit songs in public before that. With a few exceptions, records with 8-bit music appeared in the 90′s and were made on the Amiga (see the timeline). […]

  39. big dug Says:

    notendo.com 2001 – …
    hi anders

    • goto80 Says:

      there’s tons of stuff missing, obviously. visuals are not a main focus, but I’d like to add some of your things. where do i find references for your 2001-works?

  40. lizardb0y Says:

    Here’s a video of Steve Russell demonstrating music and Space War! on the restored PDP-1 at the Computer History Museum in California.

  41. lizardb0y Says:

    Woops, apparently the guy at the start of the video is Peter Samson, not Steve Russell.

  42. ds2012 Says:

    Calvin Harris

    • goto80 Says:

      Do you happen to know how he uses the Amiga? It seems to me that it’s mostly as a MIDI-controller, but I’m not sure.

  43. djmips Says:

    “I’ve got a secret” game show 1958 Janet Norman operates a Bendix G15 Digital Computer to play ‘Noel’.

  44. Nikola Tomic Says:

    Hi guys.

    Take a listen at “The Book Of Evil”, 4 channel protracker song from 1993:


  45. A Tracker From the 1960s? | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] Lejaren Hiller was one of the first people to generate music with a computer. He was doing it already in the 1950s, just like for example Douglas Bolitho and Martin Klein (info). […]

  46. More Computer Music Recordings From the 1950′s | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] There is also confusion about the music of Z22. Plenty of information seems to be offered in a DVD, which these two links talk about. If you have more info (or the DVD) feel free to get in touch. If you want more computer music history, check out the timeline. […]

  47. A Short History of Hardcore Chipmusic | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] In the mid 90s, the hardcore 4×4-pounding of gabber slowly evolved to a slightly more, uhm, “mature” genre. This evolution, I’ve been told, was driven forward by the Australian Bloody Fist label. Many of their artists worked with Protracker on Amiga. The label manager Mark (aka Nasenbluten) told me that they made 20 releases during 1994-2004 that were more or less only made on Amiga (see timeline). […]

  48. Hardcore Chipmusic @ Boing Boing « GOTO8O Says:

    […] did research for a chapter on chipmusic for an academic book on video game music. The blog also has a timeline that contains mostly chipscene-related things but also art, demoscene, hacking, etc. Yeah, and it […]

  49. Famous People Who Came From the Demoscene | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] being complete. And I have not been able to confirm and research these entries as much as with the Timeline. So if you find errors, please get in touch. This list is updated as time goes by so feel free to […]

  50. Chip Music Piracy – Since the 1960s | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] Peter Samson made computer music in the 1950’s and developed his own music software (see timeline). Already in 1960 he made a graphical interface for his music software for the TX-0 machine, […]

  51. New Recording of the First Computer Music | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] More examples of early computer music in the timeline. […]

  52. Celebrating ST-01 and ST-02 | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] Soundtracker was later hacked and modified to be less buggy and more user-friendly, most noteably by Mahoney & Kaktus’ Noisetracker in 1989. The tracker standard was set free, and spawned a sort of remix culture where open source mod-files were spread around the world for free. This was a thriving movement through the 1990’s and beyond, leaking into electronic genres such as gabber/breakcore, IDM, UK hardcore/drum n’ bass, and so on. […]

  53. Even More Amiga Hardcore | CHIPFLIP Says:

    […] of my everlasting side projects is the Timeline. That’s where I collect 8-bit related music releases, art projects, events, soft- and […]

  54. Cerator Says:

    If you are still (or again ;) updating this timeline I have two things that my by worthy additions:
    2010 lft’s Chipophone (see https://www.linusakesson.net/chipophone/pages.php or on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=chipophone)
    and maybe also
    2017 Aleksi Eeben’s Polyanna – a 8-voice Tracker for the C64 (http://csdb.dk/release/?id=153091)

  55. Members of Mayday on Amiga | CHIPFLIP Says:

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